When we look around our environment, all around we find, especially in big cities, are pollutions. These pollutions come from many sources, such as vehicles spread along streets and smokestacks from manufactures industry. They may cause direct harm for body’s health. We can have asthma, dermatitis, or even early aging and other bad effects of pollutions. But do you know that these pollutions not only give direct symptoms? In fact, some of these pollutions are carcinogenic agents which able to cause cancer chronically.
Chemical carcinogenics can be found in air, water, and also land. These chemical substances have a wonderful ability to react with DNA. Harmfully these substances differ with the other toxics for they have biology effect to stay and cumulate in our body and slowly. We can find chemical carcinogenics as organic and anorganic chemical substance, solid substance, cytocin, hormone and immunosupresan.
Chemical carcinogenics can relate to cocarcinogenesis, which it is some activities in our body that can encourage the incident of cancer in suboptimal dosis. Because these substances can cause cancer which could bring to death, we should be careful of them.
Carninogen itself could be define into seven categories. These following are the categories of carninogens.
1. DNA reactive (genotoxic) carcinogen
There are various kind of this carcinogen. They are direct-acting carcinogen (cannot be found in nature, such as halo-ethers and nitroso amida), pro-carcinogen (such as halogenated hydrocarbon, microbiology carcinogen, carbamate, etc) and inorganic carcinogen (such as uranium, polonium, radium, chromium, etc)
2. Epigenetic carcinogen
This kind of carcinogen is indirect genotoxict. Saccharine, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are the examples of this carcinogen.
This is a cause of cancer incident as implication of chronic irritation and develop to chemical agent which cause death of cells as compensation of proliferation undergo in cells. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) is one good example.
4. Hormone modifying
In age more than 40 years, hormone especially estrogen could be the other cause of cancer. The other hormone could cause it are androgen and 3-aminotriazole.
In diverse way, the process of build immune could increase the risk of cancer for those who gain it. This what can be explained about the increase of leukemia in trial animals after the giving of azathioprine serum.
These solid substances able to cause cancer are asbestos, iron-carbohydrate complex, etc.
This class of carcinogen have no covalen reaction with DNA directly, but cannot be classified into epigenetic agent neither. The examples are dioxane, benzene, thiomida, etc.
Those carcinogen agents can cause many cases of cancer such as lung cancer (arsenic, asbestos, chromium, coal, nickel, gasoline), bladder cancer (aromatic amine, coal products, skin dust), skin cancer (arsenic, petroleum products, coal products), liver cancer (arsenic and vinyl chloride), spinal cord cancer (benzene and ionizing radiation) and scrotum cancer (hydrocarbon).